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Strong Acid

Definition An acid that is completely dissociated in an aqueous solution and loses a proton, which is captured by water to produce hydronium ion [1].                              HA (aq) → H+ + A– HA= protonated acid H+ = free acidic proton A- = conjugate base                           HA (aq) + H2O → H3O+(aq) + A–(aq) Strong acid … Read more

Phase Diagram

Introduction A phase diagram is a representation of different phases of a system consists of a substance or many substances at two different thermodynamic conditions such as temperature and pressure. Phase diagram can also be drawn between other thermodynamic conditions such as between temperature and volume or temperature and solubility etc. Phase diagram which is … Read more

Charles’s Law

Definition It is a quantitative relationship between temperature and volume of a gas. It was given by French scientist J. Charles in 1787. According to this law, the volume of the given mass of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature when the pressure is kept constant.                                       V    α   T                     (when pressure … Read more

Entropy Equation

Introduction An Entropy contains a broad range of properties of a thermodynamic system. It relates to the number Ω of microscopic configuration which is also known as microstates which are consistent with the macroscopic quantitates that characterize the system i.e. volume, pressure, and temperature. History Lazare Carnot, a French mathematician suggested in his 1803 paper … Read more

Equivalence point

In chemistry, an equivalence point is a term that is used while performing titration. It applies to any acid-base or neutralization reaction technically. Definition: The equivalence point of a chemical reaction is the point at which equal quantities of reactants are mixed chemically. In other words, while titrating, it is a point where the amount … Read more

Order of Reaction

The order of the reaction is a relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the concentration of the species. Definition: The order of reaction is defined as the power dependence of the rate on the concentration of each reactant. Once the rate law of a reaction is determined the same law can be … Read more

Haber’s Process

Introduction It is also known as the Haber – Bosch process or Synthetic Ammonia process. Haber’s process is considered as one the most beneficial and efficient industrial processes to be used for the production of ammonia which is a colorless gas having a distinct odor. In the 20th century Fritz Haber, a German chemist developed … Read more

Strong Bases

Strong Bases Definition According to Arrhenius, bases are compounds that releases hydroxide ions OH– in aqueous solution. Strong bases are those bases which can dissociates completely to give hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Such as, KOH(aq) → K+(aq) + OH–(aq) That means, one mole of strong base dissociates in aqueous solution to give one mole of hydroxide … Read more