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Titration Indicator

Titration It is also known as titrimetry and volumetric analysis [1]. Titration is quantitative chemical analysis used in laboratories to find out the concentration of an identified analyte (a substance to be analyzed). A reagent which is termed as titrant or titrator is prepared on the basis known concentration and volume as a standard solution. … Read more

Steam Distillation

What is distillation: Distillation is an ancient process which separates mixtures by using the relative boiling points of two substances. It is proved that the distillation process has been used by experimentalists from very earliest times. Aristotle explained the use of distillation form extraction of pure water by evaporating seas water [1]. As the distillation … Read more

Dynamic Equilibrium

The word equilibrium is derived from the Latin word equilibrium which means “an equal balance”. Therefore, we can say that it is a state in which the opposing forces are balanced or a system that is not changing with time i.e. no net force is acting. Equilibrium is divided into two types: static equilibrium and … Read more

Bond Energy

Definition             When a bond is formed between two atoms, energy is released. The same amount of energy is absorbed when the bond is broken to form neutral atoms. So, ‘’the bond energy is the average amount of energy required to break all bonds of a particular type in one mole of the substance’’. Explanation … Read more

Strong Acid

Definition An acid that is completely dissociated in an aqueous solution and loses a proton, which is captured by water to produce hydronium ion [1].                              HA (aq) → H+ + A– HA= protonated acid H+ = free acidic proton A- = conjugate base                           HA (aq) + H2O → H3O+(aq) + A–(aq) Strong acid … Read more

Phase Diagram

Introduction A phase diagram is a representation of different phases of a system consists of a substance or many substances at two different thermodynamic conditions such as temperature and pressure. Phase diagram can also be drawn between other thermodynamic conditions such as between temperature and volume or temperature and solubility etc. Phase diagram which is … Read more

Charles’s Law

Definition It is a quantitative relationship between temperature and volume of a gas. It was given by French scientist J. Charles in 1787. According to this law, the volume of the given mass of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature when the pressure is kept constant.                                       V    α   T                     (when pressure … Read more

Entropy Equation

Introduction An Entropy contains a broad range of properties of a thermodynamic system. It relates to the number Ω of microscopic configuration which is also known as microstates which are consistent with the macroscopic quantitates that characterize the system i.e. volume, pressure, and temperature. History Lazare Carnot, a French mathematician suggested in his 1803 paper … Read more