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Tertiary Carbocation

INTRODUCTION What is carbocation? A carbocation is a molecule that has a carbon atom that bears three bonds and a positive formal charge. Generally, the carbocations are unstable because they do not have eight electrons that satisfy the octet rule. Classification of Carbocation A carbocation is classified into three basic categories Primary carbocation Secondary carbocation … Read more

Chlorination of Benzene

Explanation Benzene reacts with halogens (salt former) like chlorine and bromine and these reactions are called electrophilic substitution reaction in the presence of catalyst of Lewis acid like aluminum chloride, sulfur dichloride, ferric chloride or iron [1]. Aluminum bromide is used when benzene reacting bromide. Iron is not a catalyst because it reacts with small … Read more

Nitration of Benzene

Introduction to nitration of benzene Nitration of benzene is an example of elctrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Here nitronium ion (NO2+) acts as an electrophile and reacts with benzene to form nitrobenzene. As for example Benzene reacts with concentrated nitric acid in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst, and form nitrobenzene.  Nitration of benzene … Read more