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E and Z Isomers

Introduction What is E-Z isomerism? E-Z isomerism (also known as cis-trans isomerism or Geometric isomerism) is a type of stereoisomerism in which the same groups are arranged differently. The general approach of the E-Z system is to observe the two groups at the end of each double bond. Then, analyze that the higher priority group … Read more

Group 2 Periodic Table

WHAT IS PERIODIC TABLE? It is a tabular display of chemical elements, arranged in order of atomic number in rows so that elements with similar atomic structure and recurring chemical properties appear in vertical columns. The seven rows of the table are called a periodic table.  In the periodic table, chemical elements are present in … Read more

Properties of Molecule

Molecule Definition A molecule is the smallest particle of a pure substance which can exist independently. It can be divided but retain its composition and chemical properties of that substance. When atoms combine by forming covalent bonds then the collection of atoms are called molecule. It is also called as simplest unit of covalent compound … Read more

What is concentration of reactants?

The increase in the concentration of reactants, the rate of reaction increases. Ions and molecules interact to form a new compound on increasing the concentration. The decrease in the concentration of reactants, fewer molecules and ions are present and the rate of reaction decreases. In the reaction of gases, if we increase the pressure there … Read more

Catalytic Reactions

Introduction What is a catalyst? A catalyst is a substance that is used to speed up a chemical reaction but it is not consumed by the reaction. What is catalysis? Catalysis is a process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a chemical substance which is known as a catalyst. A very … Read more


Introduction Aluminium is a light weight metal with silvery white appearance [1]. It is denoted by symbol “Al”. In Purest form, the aluminium metal is bluish- white in colour. Position in Periodic table It belongs to group 13 of the periodic table. This group has 3 electrons in their outermost shell. Elements of this group … Read more

Steam Distillation

What is distillation: Distillation is an ancient process which separates mixtures by using the relative boiling points of two substances. It is proved that the distillation process has been used by experimentalists from very earliest times. Aristotle explained the use of distillation form extraction of pure water by evaporating seas water [1]. As the distillation … Read more

Electrochemical Series

Introduction Electrochemical series is defined as the arrangement of the elements or their ions in increasing or decreasing order of their standard electrode potential under standard conditions. Electrode potential is also reduction potential and it is calculated for many elements by comparing with standard electrode potential of hydrogen electrode which is also called standard hydrogen … Read more