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Mass spectrum of Chlorine

Chlorine Explanation Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and it has atomic number 17. Chlorine is the second member of halogen group it has similar properties like fluorine, bromine and iodine. Chlorine has electronic configuration [Ne] 3s23p5   with the seven electrons in the third outermost shell acting as its valence electrons. Chlorine … Read more

Chromatography Methods

Introduction It is a biophysical method widely used for the separation of different components in a mixture of solvents. Components of a mixture are separated through chromatography due to their differential adsorption ability between stationary and mobile phase. This method is used routinely in chemical laborites, pharmaceuticals and in industry. Though there are different chromatographic … Read more

Beer-Lambert Law

History The beer –lambert law is also known as Beer’s law, the Lambert-Beer law or the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Law. The reason for so many names is because more than one law is involved in it.  In 1729 Pierre Bouger discovered the law and published it in Essai d’optique sur la gradation de la lumiere. In 1760 … Read more

Carbon-13 NMR

Introduction to carbon-13 NMR Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is commonly known as carbon-13 NMR, 13C NMR or only carbon NMR. Like 1H NMR, it is a type of NMR spectroscopy but identifies carbon atoms in an organic molecules. As 12C has no spin, so NMR cannot detect it. The natural abundance of 13C is 1.1% … Read more

NMR Spectroscopy

Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy NMR spectroscopy or nuclear magnetic spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique used in quality control and research to determine the molecular structure and purity of a sample. This analytical method is used to know the quality of a known product or the quantity of certain product in a reaction mixture. For an … Read more

Gas chromatography

Introduction to gas chromatography Gas chromatography is a chromatography technique that can separate and analyze volatile compounds in gas phase. Depending on stationary phase used in this analytical technique, there are two types of gas chromatography: Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) Gas-solid chromatography (GSC). Among these, GLC is most widely used method. A gas chromatography looks like: … Read more

Paper chromatography

Introduction to paper chromatography Paper chromatography is a chromatography technique used to separate mixture of chemical substances into its individual compounds. Paper chromatography is used to teach TLC or other chromatography as it is very similar to TLC. Principles of paper chromatography All chromatography follow the same principle. Paper Chromatography consists of two phases: one … Read more

Column chromatography

Introduction to column chromatography Column chromatography is a chromatography technique used to separate mixture of chemical substances into its individual compounds. Column chromatography is a widely used method for the purification or separation of chemical compound mixture in lab. Principles of column chromatography Column Chromatography consists of two phases: one mobile phase and one contiguous … Read more