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Steam Distillation

What is distillation: Distillation is an ancient process which separates mixtures by using the relative boiling points of two substances. It is proved that the distillation process has been used by experimentalists from very earliest times. Aristotle explained the use of distillation form extraction of pure water by evaporating seas water [1]. As the distillation … Read more

Phase Diagram

Introduction A phase diagram is a representation of different phases of a system consists of a substance or many substances at two different thermodynamic conditions such as temperature and pressure. Phase diagram can also be drawn between other thermodynamic conditions such as between temperature and volume or temperature and solubility etc. Phase diagram which is … Read more

Raoult’s Law

Raoult’s Law Definition The pressure at which vapor is formed above a solid or liquid at a particular temperature is called the vapor pressure. Vapor and solid or liquid are in dynamic equilibrium at this temperature. In 1980s Rault discovered when a non-volatile solute is dissolved in a solvent the vapor pressure decreases. The lowering … Read more