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Organic Chemistry Basics

INTRODUCTION What is organic chemistry? Organic chemistry involves the study of compounds that contains carbon mainly. Simple compounds like carbonates, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide is an exception. Carbon is singled out because of its extraordinary chemical diversity by any other chemical element. Its diversity is based on the following: Carbon atom forms a very … Read more

Ester hydrolysis

Hydrolysis It means cleavage of chemical bonds of compound through the addition of water. During hydrolysis reaction with pure water is slow and usually not used, but ester is catalyzed by dilute acid like dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute sulphuric acid [1]. For example:                                    H+ (aq)           CH3COOCH2CH3 + H2O      ⇋   CH3COOH + CH3CH2OH                … Read more

Dehydration of Alcohols

Introduction When alcohol is allowed to react with protic acids, it is prone to lose a water molecule to form alkenes. This type of reaction is commonly known as dehydration of alcohols. This is a basic example of an elimination reaction. The mechanism rate is different for primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. In the case … Read more

Sulphuric Acid

INTRODUCTION OF SULPHURIC ACID Sulphuric acid is a chemical compound (H2SO4). It is odorless, colorless, extremely corrosive, oily liquid and sometimes it is called oil of vitriol. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a weak acid because of its poor electrolytes, at room temperature, a little bit of it is dissociated into ions. But on the other … Read more

Acid Anhydride

Definition An acid anhydride is a chemical compound which is non- metal oxide which is obtained by removal of a water molecule from an acid. The word ‘’anhydride’’ means without water. It reacts with water and form an acidic solution [1]. In organic chemistry it is a functional group which consists of two acyl groups … Read more


Introduction to alkane Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon consist of carbon and hydrogen only without any functional group. The general formula of alkane is CnH2n+2. Example: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) etc. Classification of alkane There are three types of alkanes: Linear alkanes Branched alkanes Cyclic alkanes 1. Linear alkanes Linear alkanes are alkanes where … Read more

Carbonyl group

Introduction to carbonyl group In organic chemistry, carbonyl group is a functional group where carbon and oxygen atom are connected with a double bond. The compounds contain carbonyl group are known as carbonyl compounds. Carbonyl group refers to a carbon monoxide can also attached to an inorganic atom as a ligand that is called metal … Read more

Oxidation of Alcohols

Introduction to oxidation of alcohols Oxidation of alcohols is a kind of organic reaction. Different types of alcohols oxidized to form aldehydes, ketones or acids. Thus this reaction is used to distinguish different types of alcohols, such as- primary, secondary or tertiary. Primary alcohols (R-CH2-OH) are oxidized to aldehydes (R-CHO) or to carboxylic acids (R-COOH), … Read more