Are you a chemistry student? Visit A-Level Chemistry to download comprehensive revision materials - for UK or international students!

Dehydration of Alcohols

Introduction When alcohol is allowed to react with protic acids, it is prone to lose a water molecule to form alkenes. This type of reaction is commonly known as dehydration of alcohols. This is a basic example of an elimination reaction. The mechanism rate is different for primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. In the case … Read more

Sulphuric Acid

INTRODUCTION OF SULPHURIC ACID Sulphuric acid is a chemical compound (H2SO4). It is odorless, colorless, extremely corrosive, oily liquid and sometimes it is called oil of vitriol. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a weak acid because of its poor electrolytes, at room temperature, a little bit of it is dissociated into ions. But on the other … Read more

Acid Anhydride

Definition An acid anhydride is a chemical compound which is non- metal oxide which is obtained by removal of a water molecule from an acid. The word ‘’anhydride’’ means without water. It reacts with water and form an acidic solution [1]. In organic chemistry it is a functional group which consists of two acyl groups … Read more


Introduction to alkane Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon consist of carbon and hydrogen only without any functional group. The general formula of alkane is CnH2n+2. Example: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) etc. Classification of alkane There are three types of alkanes: Linear alkanes Branched alkanes Cyclic alkanes 1. Linear alkanes Linear alkanes are alkanes where … Read more

Carbonyl group

Introduction to carbonyl group In organic chemistry, carbonyl group is a functional group where carbon and oxygen atom are connected with a double bond. The compounds contain carbonyl group are known as carbonyl compounds. Carbonyl group refers to a carbon monoxide can also attached to an inorganic atom as a ligand that is called metal … Read more

Oxidation of Alcohols

Introduction to oxidation of alcohols Oxidation of alcohols is a kind of organic reaction. Different types of alcohols oxidized to form aldehydes, ketones or acids. Thus this reaction is used to distinguish different types of alcohols, such as- primary, secondary or tertiary. Primary alcohols (R-CH2-OH) are oxidized to aldehydes (R-CHO) or to carboxylic acids (R-COOH), … Read more


Introduction to amines Amines  are organic functional group where one of more hydrogen atoms of ammonia (NH3) are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups. When alkyl group is attached with ammonia it is known as alkylamines and when aryl group is attached it is known as arylamine. When both groups are present in amine, it … Read more


Definition of Phenol Phenols are organic aromatic compounds containing -OH functional group directly attached with the aromatic ring with general formula C6H5OH. Phenols are also known as carbolic acid. Depending on the number of hydroxyl group attached to aromatic ring phenols are classified as monohydric, dihydric, polyhydric etc. Compounds containing -OH group in a side-chain … Read more