Are you a chemistry student? Visit A-Level Chemistry to download comprehensive revision materials - for UK or international students!


Introduction to alkane Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon consist of carbon and hydrogen only without any functional group. The general formula of alkane is CnH2n+2. Example: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) etc. Classification of alkane There are three types of alkanes: Linear alkanes Branched alkanes Cyclic alkanes 1. Linear alkanes Linear alkanes are alkanes where … Read more

Carbonyl group

Introduction to carbonyl group In organic chemistry, carbonyl group is a functional group where carbon and oxygen atom are connected with a double bond. The compounds contain carbonyl group are known as carbonyl compounds. Carbonyl group refers to a carbon monoxide can also attached to an inorganic atom as a ligand that is called metal … Read more

Oxidation of Alcohols

Introduction to oxidation of alcohols Oxidation of alcohols is a kind of organic reaction. Different types of alcohols oxidized to form aldehydes, ketones or acids. Thus this reaction is used to distinguish different types of alcohols, such as- primary, secondary or tertiary. Primary alcohols (R-CH2-OH) are oxidized to aldehydes (R-CHO) or to carboxylic acids (R-COOH), … Read more


Introduction to amines AminesĀ  are organic functional group where one of more hydrogen atoms of ammonia (NH3) are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups. When alkyl group is attached with ammonia it is known as alkylamines and when aryl group is attached it is known as arylamine. When both groups are present in amine, it … Read more


Definition of Phenol Phenols are organic aromatic compounds containing -OH functional group directly attached with the aromatic ring with general formula C6H5OH. Phenols are also known as carbolic acid. Depending on the number of hydroxyl group attached to aromatic ring phenols are classified as monohydric, dihydric, polyhydric etc. Compounds containing -OH group in a side-chain … Read more

Nitrous acid

Definition of nitrous acid Nitrous acid (HNO2) is an unstable weak acid available in cold acidic solution or in the form of its salts or esters. Nitrous acid decomposes to form nitric oxide (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3). Structure Nitrous acid is a planar molecule where two oxygen atoms attached with one nitrogen atom by … Read more


Definition of alkenes Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain carbon carbon double bond (C=C). The general formula of alkenes are CnH2n in comparison to alkanes with general formula CnH2n+2. Alkanes are saturated with hydrogens, while alkenes are two hydrogen less than alkanes. Thus it is known as unsaturated hydrocarbons. For example: Nomenclature IUPAC system In IUPAC … Read more

Carboxylic acid

Definition of carboxylic acid Organic compounds containing carboxyl functional group (-COOH) are called carboxylic acid. The general formula of carboxylic acid is: Carboxylic acid is composed of two functional groups carbonyl group (-CO-) and hydroxyl group(-OH). The name carboxyl derived from the first four letters of carbonyl and the last four letters of hydroxyl. Classification … Read more