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Organic Compounds

Organic Compounds Definition

Organic compounds are a type chemical compounds where one or more than one carbon covalently bonded with each other and with other atom like nitrogen, oxygen, halogen etc. Such as, methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), benzene (C6H6) etc.

By An elite (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Image source: wikimedia commons by An elite

Exceptions

Few carbon containing chemical compounds like metal cyanides (CN), oxides of carbon (CO2, CO), metal carbonates (CO3) and metal carbides are inorganic compounds. Such as, sodium cyanide (NaCN), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), calcium carbide (CaC2) etc.

Properties

Organic compounds have unique chemical and physical properties what can differ them from inorganic compounds. Such as,

  • Low boiling point
  • Low melting point
  • Low solubility in water
  • High solubility in organic solvent
  • Non conductor of electricity
  • Isomerism possible
  • Mostly covalent bonding
  • Flammable

Classification

Organic compounds can be classified in various ways. Such as, depending on sources, sizes and presence of heteroatom in organic compounds.

Natural compounds

Organic compounds are found in large number in nature and they are well known for their uses. Such as,

  • Carbohydrates- cellulose, sugar, starches etc.
  • Proteins- silk, wool, casein, in different food etc.
  • Alkaloid- quinine, morphine etc.
  • Fats and oils- cottonseed, soyabean oil, butter etc.
  • Hormones, vitamins etc.
  • Natural gas,
  • Petroleum- solvent, rubber, explosives etc.
  • Coal- drug, dyes etc.

Synthetic compounds

Organic compounds can also be made synthetically in different industries. These compounds some time exist naturally and some time they can only make synthetically. These molecules can be small or large polymer like plastics, rubber etc.

Biotechnology

Recently biotechnology engineered molecule are synthesized in lab. Such as, insulin. These compounds are manufactured using organisms like yeast and bacteria.

Organometallic compounds

Organic compounds containing a metal atom is known as organometallic compounds.

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Image source: wikimedia commons by DMacks

Structure of organic compounds

The most abundant element in organic compounds are carbon covalently bonded with each other or with other elements. Carbon has four valence electrons and the electron configuration of carbon in group state is 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py2pz0. That means it has only two unpaired electrons.

By Pumbaa (original work by Greg Robson) (File:Electron shell 006 Carbon.svg) [CC BY-SA 2.0 uk (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/uk/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons
Image source: wikimedia commons by Pumbaa
And the electron configuration of carbon in excited state is 1s2 2s1 2px1 2py2pz1. That means it has now four unpaired electrons. Thus carbon undergoes sp3 hybridization to attach convalently with four other elements. Carbon usually attached with another carbon or hydrogen atoms, like:

By DynaBlast (Created with Inkscape) [CC BY-SA 2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons
Image source: wikimedia commons by DynaBlast
Carbon can share more than one electrons with same element to form double or triple bond. Such as:

By Jake V (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Image source: wikimedia commons by Jake V
Carbon undergoes spor sp hybridization to form double or triple bond leaving one or two p-orbitals to participate in double or triple bonding.

By Dissolution (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Image source: wikimedia commons by Dissolution
Thus the rotation around the C=C is restricted and isomerism is possible.

By JaGa (Self-made using BKChem and Inkscape) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
Image source: wikimedia commons by JaGa

Nomenclature of organic compounds

The nomenclature of organic compounds done in few steps:

Step 1:

At first the longest carbon chain are identified and named as depending on the number of carbons, like:

Number of carbonsCode
1Meth
2Eth
3Prop
4But
5Pent
6Hex
7Hept

Step 2:

The name of the longest chain complete with suffix -ane or other depending on functional group attached to it.

DescriptionCode
C-C single bond onlyane
C=C double bondene
C≡C triple bondylene
Branched  group attached with main chainyne
Alcoholanol
Aldehydeanal
Ketoneanone
Carboxylic acidnoic acid

Step 3:

Any name of branched alkyl group or other functional group in branched position or in longest chain can attached as prefix with the name of the organic compound.

Step 4:

The number of position of functional group or branched alkyl group must be mentioned where appropriate.

Example

As for example: the name of following compounds contains double bonds in different positions are as follows:

By Rifleman 82 (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Image source: wikimedia commons by Rifleman 82
The name of compounds containing aldehyde and ketone functional groups are:

By Fvasconcellos 20:11, 8 January 2008 (UTC). Original image by DrBob (talk · contribs). [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons
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